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With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley —the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas.
It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe.
The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.
Austria consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita ,  due to its highly industrialized economy, and well-developed social market economy.
Until the s, many of Austria's largest industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies.
Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy.
Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria. Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the German economy.
Since Austria became a member state of the European Union , it has gained closer ties to other EU economies, reducing its economic dependence on Germany.
In addition, membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union.
Growth in GDP reached 3. Austria indicated on 16 November that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.
The Financial crisis of — dented the economy of Austria in other ways as well. Since the fall of communism, Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe.
Between and , 4, mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of bil. EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced.
EUR in In , the country began construction of a nuclear-powered electricity-generation station at Zwentendorf on the River Danube , following a unanimous vote in parliament.
However, in , a referendum voted approximately Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.
Compared to most European countries, Austria is ecologically well endowed. Its biocapacity or biological natural capital is more than double of the world average: In , Austria had 3.
In contrast, in , they used 6. This means that Austrians use about 60 percent more biocapacity than Austria contains.
As a result, Austria is running a biocapacity deficit. Austria's population was estimated to be nearly 9 million 8.
It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living. Vienna is by far the country's largest city. Graz is second in size, with , inhabitants, followed by Linz , , Salzburg , , Innsbruck , , and Klagenfurt , All other cities have fewer than , inhabitants.
According to Eurostat , in there were 1. Of these, , Turks form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around , While 2, Turks left Austria in the same year, 10, immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth.
The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. Statistics Austria estimates that nearly 10 million people will live in the country by Standard Austrian German is spoken in Austria, though used primarily just in education, publications, announcements and websites.
It is mostly identical to the Standard German of Germany but with some vocabulary differences. This Standard German language is used in formal contexts across Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, as well as among those with significant German-speaking minorities: Italy, Belgium and Denmark.
However, the common spoken language of Austria is not the Standard German taught in schools but Austro-Bavarian : a group of Upper German local dialects with varying degrees of difficulty being understood by each other as well as by speakers of non-Austrian German dialects.
Taken as a collective whole, German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by The Austrian federal states of Carinthia and Styria are home to a significant indigenous Slovene-speaking minority while in the easternmost state, Burgenland formerly part of the Hungarian portion of Austria—Hungary , there are significant Hungarian - and Croatian -speaking minorities.
Of the remaining number of Austria's people that are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former East Bloc nations.
Guest workers Gastarbeiter and their descendants, as well as refugees from the Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria.
Since the Roma — Sinti gypsies have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria. According to census information published by Statistik Austria for  there were a total of , foreign nationals living in Austria.
Of these, the largest by far are , foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia of whom , speak Serbian; , Croatian; 31, Bosnian — i. The second largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the Turks including minority of Kurds with a number of , to , who currently live in Austria.
The next largest population of linguistic and ethnic groups are the , who speak German as their mother tongue even though they hail from outside of Austria mainly immigrants from Germany, some from Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, Romania , or the former Soviet Union ; , English; 24, Albanian; 17, Polish; 14, Hungarian; 12, Romanian; 10, Malayali; 7, Arabic; 6, Slovak; 6, Czech; 5, Persian; 5, Italian; 5, Russian; 5, French; 4, Chinese; 4, Spanish; 3, Bulgarian.
The numbers for other languages fall off sharply below 3, In , some of the Austrian states introduced standardised tests for new citizens, to assure their language ability, cultural knowledge and accordingly their ability to integrate into the Austrian society.
Historically Austrians were regarded as ethnic Germans and viewed themselves as such, although this national identity was challenged by Austrian nationalism in the decades after the end of World War I and even more so after World War II.
In , Germany was founded as a nation-state , Austria was not a part of it. After World War I and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" Republic of German-Austria and that it was part of the German Republic.
A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state.
After the events of World War II and Nazism , Austria as a country has made efforts to develop an Austrian national identity among its populace, [ citation needed ] and nowadays most do not consider themselves Germans.
Austrians may be described either as a nationality or as a homogeneous Germanic ethnic group ,  that is closely related to neighboring Germans , Liechtensteiners and German-speaking Swiss.
The Turks are the largest single immigrant group in Austria,  closely followed by the Serbs.
The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in An estimated 13, to 40, Slovenes in the Austrian state of Carinthia the Carinthian Slovenes as well as Croats around 30,  and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty Staatsvertrag of The right for bilingual topographic signs for the regions where Slovene and Croat Austrians live alongside the German-speaking population as required by the State Treaty is still to be fully implemented in the view of some, while others believe that the treaty-derived obligations have been met see below.
Many Carinthians are afraid of Slovenian territorial claims, [ citation needed ] pointing to the fact that Yugoslav troops entered the state after each of the two World Wars and considering that some official Slovenian atlases show parts of Carinthia as Slovene cultural territory.
The recently deceased governor, Jörg Haider , has made this fact a matter of public argument in autumn by refusing to increase the number of bilingual topographic signs in Carinthia.
Another interesting phenomenon is the so-called " Windischen-Theorie " stating that the Slovenes can be split in two groups: actual Slovenes and Windische a traditional German name for Slavs , based on differences in language between Austrian Slovenes, who were taught Slovene standard language in school and those Slovenes who spoke their local Slovene dialect but went to German schools.
The term Windische was applied to the latter group as a means of distinction. This politically influenced theory, dividing Slovene Austrians into the "loyal Windische" and the "national Slovenes", was never generally accepted and fell out of use some decades ago.
Religion in Austria   . Since the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined.
Data for from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,, members, or According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll , .
Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian states Bundesländer and partly to the federal government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.
Pre-school education called Kindergarten in German , free in most states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate.
Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant. Primary education, or Volksschule , lasts for four years, starting at age six.
The maximum class size is 30, but may be as low as It is generally expected that a class will be taught by one teacher for the entire four years and the stable bond between teacher and pupil is considered important for a child's well-being.
Children work individually and all members of a class follow the same plan of work. There is no streaming. Children are given homework daily from the first year.
Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.
As in Germany, secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school.
The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university.
Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen.
In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.
Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work.
Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report "Zeugnis" are a prerequisite for moving up "aufsteigen" to the next class.
Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year "sitzenbleiben".
It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" slightly more emphasis on arts or "Realgymnasium" slightly more emphasis on science.
Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school.
The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently.
A bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. Since , for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance.
Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e. Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music.
Vienna was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. During the Baroque period , Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music.
Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute. Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna.
Austrian Herbert von Karajan was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the s until his death.
International pop super star Johann Hölzel, also known by his stage name Falco was born in Vienna , Austria 19 February Conchita Wurst is also a renowned singer from the Austrian stock.
Contemporary artist Herbert Brandl. Sascha Kolowrat was an Austrian pioneer of filmmaking. Billy Wilder , Fritz Lang , Josef von Sternberg , and Fred Zinnemann originally came from the Austrian Empire before establishing themselves as internationally relevant filmmakers.
Michael Haneke became internationally known for his disturbing cinematic studies, receiving a Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions.
Otto Schenk not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director. Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation.
In the 20th century, contributions by Lise Meitner , Erwin Schrödinger and Wolfgang Pauli to nuclear research and quantum mechanics were key to these areas' development during the s and s.
A present-day quantum physicist is Anton Zeilinger , noted as the first scientist to demonstrate quantum teleportation.
In addition to physicists , Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper.
A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in medieval times with Paracelsus. Eminent physicians like Theodore Billroth , Clemens von Pirquet , and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th-century Vienna School of Medicine.
Complementing its status as a land of artists and scientists, Austria has always been a country of poets, writers, and novelists. Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Austrian cuisine is mainly the tradition of Royal-Cuisine "Hofküche" delivered over centuries. It is famous for its well-balanced variations of beef and pork and countless variations of vegetables.
There is also the "Mehlspeisen" Bakery, which created particular delicacies such as Sachertorte, "Krapfen" which are doughnuts usually filled with apricot jam or custard, and "Strudel" such as " Apfelstrudel " filled with apple, "Topfenstrudel" filled with a type of cheese curd called "topfen", and " Millirahmstrudel " milk-cream strudel.
In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by Hungarian , Czech , Polish , Jewish , Italian , Balkan and French cuisines, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed.
The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe. There are also Kärntner Kasnudeln, which are pockets of dough filled with Topfen, potatoes, herbs and peppermint which are boiled and served with a butter sauce.
Kasnudeln are traditionally served with a salad. Eierschwammerl dishes are also popular. The sugar block dispenser Pez was invented in Austria, as well as Mannerschnitten.
Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. Beer is sold in 0. The most popular types of beer are lager known as Märzen in Austria , naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer.
At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available. The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines  and Zweigelt is the most widely planted red wine grape.
The produce of small private schnapps distilleries , of which there are around 20, in Austria, is known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand.
Local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade.
Due to the mountainous terrain, alpine skiing is a prominent sport in Austria and is extremely valuable in the promotion and economic growth of the country.
Bobsleigh , luge , and skeleton are also popular events with a permanent track located in Igls , which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the and Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck.
The first Winter Youth Olympics in were held in Innsbruck as well. A popular team sport in Austria is football , which is governed by the Austrian Football Association.
However, recently Austrian football has not been internationally successful. Besides football, Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the Austrian Hockey League for ice hockey , and the Österreichische Basketball Bundesliga for basketball.
He is currently the only driver to have been champion for both Ferrari and McLaren, the sport's two most successful constructors.
Thomas Muster is a former tennis player and one of the greatest clay courters of all time. Sport played a significant role in developing national consciousness and boosting national self-confidence in the early years of the Second Republic after World War II, through events such as the Tour of Austria cycle race and through sporting successes such as the national football team's run to third at the World Cup and the performances of Toni Sailer and the rest of the "Kitzbühel Miracle Team" in the s.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Austria disambiguation. Country in Central Europe.
Hungarian Slovene Burgenland Croatian  . Main article: Name of Austria. Modern Austria honours this document, dated , as the founding of the nation.
Main article: History of Austria. Main article: Politics of Austria. Main article: Foreign relations of Austria.
Main article: Austrian Armed Forces. Main article: States of Austria. Lower Austria. Upper Austria. This section's factual accuracy is disputed.
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Main article: Geography of Austria. Austrian rural area of Schoppernau in summer. Climate data for Lech, Vorarlberg m; average temperatures — Dfc, bordering on Dfb.
Main article: Economy of Austria. Main article: Demographics of Austria. Main article: List of cities and towns in Austria. Largest cities or towns in Austria Statistik Austria 1 January Main article: Languages of Austria.
Main article: Religion in Austria. Eastern Orthodoxy 8. Protestantism 3. Buddhism 0. None or other Main article: Education in Austria.
Main article: Culture of Austria. Main article: Music of Austria. Further information: List of Austrian artists and architects.
See also: List of Austrian writers and Austrian literature. Main article: Austrian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Austria. Austria portal Tyrol portal.
Such platforms would have to massively increase their moderation departments to delete reported content within the deadlines.
This would be unmanageable for many of these companies and could lead to closures, he fears. This would guarantee that only those companies that can afford such intensive moderation would fall under the law.
Another open question for Lohninger and Kucharowits concerns the introduction by law of a possible obligation to use a clear name in their user profile.
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Escape House. Lake Hallstatt Explorer. Hallstatt Skywalk "Welterbeblick". Go Rest. A mix of the charming, modern, and tried and true.
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